Flexible PVC Pipe and Fittings Terms
Flexible PVC Pipe and Fittings Terms Definition/Glossary
ABRASION – The process of wearing away by friction.
ABRASION RESISTANCE - A material's ability to withstand erosion when subjected to rubbing, scraping, wearing, etc.
ABS – (ACRYLONITRILE-BUTADIENE-STYRENE) - A plastic made from polymers with prescribed percentages of acrylonitrile, butadiene and styrene. Flexible PVC constructed of ABS is generally suitable for conveyance of potable water, slurries and chemicals, and is also used for chilled water applications and compressed airline systems.
ACCELERATED LIFE TEST - A method of testing which approximates in a short period of time the effects deterioration will have on a material under normal operating conditions.
ACID – Generally speaking, a water-soluble compound containing hydrogen and other elements that are capable of reacting with a base element to create a salt.
ACID RESISTANT - Demonstrating the ability to withstand the deteriorating effects of acid within specified limits and over a specified period of time.
ACRYLONITRILE-BUTADIENE-STYRENE (ABS) - A plastic made from polymers with prescribed percentages of acrylonitrile, butadiene and styrene. Flexible PVC constructed of ABS is generally suitable for conveyance of potable water, slurries and chemicals, and is also used for chilled water applications and compressed airline systems.
ADHESIVE - A glue or substance capable of holding materials together by surface attachment.
ADAPTER - A fitting that adapts from one system type to another, or is used for connecting different O.D.’s (outside diameters) together.
ADHESION – The strength of a bond between two surfaces.
ADHESION FAILURE – The separation of two adhered surfaces as a result of service or atmospheric conditions or force.
ADHESIVE - A material or solution which will cause two or more surfaces to adhere when applied properly.
ADHESIVE COATING – A layer of adhesive material applied to a surface so as to increase the adherence to an adjoining surface.
AGING - The effect on materials exposed to an environment for a period of time or the act of exposing materials to an environment over a period of time.
ALKALIS - Compounds capable of neutralizing acids.
AMBIENT TEMPERATURE - The temperature of the atmosphere or medium surrounding an object.
ANSI – The American National Standards Institute Inc.; The Institute oversees the creation, promulgation and use of thousands of norms and guidelines that directly impact businesses in nearly every sector: from acoustical devices to construction equipment, from dairy and livestock production to energy distribution, and many more. ANSI is also actively engaged in accrediting programs that assess conformance to standards – including globally-recognized cross-sector programs such as the ISO 9000 (quality) and ISO 14000 (environmental) management systems.
ANTIOXIDANT - A substance added to a plastic compound to retard degradation due to contact with air (oxygen).
ANTIOZONANT – A substance added to a plastic compound to retard degradation due to contact with ozone.
API – The American Petroleum Institute; The American Petroleum Institute (API) is the trade association that represents all aspects of America’s oil and natural gas industry. With more than 500 corporate members that come from all segments of the industry. They are producers, refiners, suppliers, pipeline operators and marine transporters, as well as service and supply companies that support all segments of the industry.
ARMORED HOSE – Hose with a protective covering applied, such as a braid or a helix, to protect the hose from physical abuse and damage.
ASPE – The American Society of Plumbing Engineers; ASPE is the international organization for professionals skilled in the design, specification and inspection of plumbing systems.
ASTM – American Society for Testing and Materials; American society that established standards for building products (all construction materials), including plumbing products. Comprised of product producers, product end users and general interest people, such as engineers and procurers. ASTM does not certify products to meet its standards.
BAND – A metal ring which is either welded or cast on the outer surface of a hose nipple or a thin strip of metal which is used as a boltless clamp – see clamp and/or hose clamp.
BARB AND FERRULE FITTING – A fitting comprised of two pieces, one a barbed nipple and one a ferrule, normally with peripheral ridges or barbs which is inserted into a hose and a ferrule and is usually crimped on from the outside.
BATCH – The output or sum of one mixing operation.
BELLED-END - A pipe end that has been enlarged so that it has the same inside dimensions as a fitting socket. The belled end acts as a coupling when joining pipe.
BENCH TEST - A test in which the conditions that a material will encounter in service are approximate in the laboratory.
BEND - The measure of curvature from a straight line.
BENDING FORCE - A measure of stiffness, measured by the amount of force required to force an object to bend around a specified radius.
BINDING-IN WIRE – Also known as a “nipple wire”, this is a wire which is used to anchor a hose to a nipple, and which is normally applied during the original construction of the hose.
BLOCK END - A manner of end reinforcement.
BOCA – Building Officials and Code Administrators; An association similar to IAPMO. They are the plumbing and building code writing group who write the codes which cities and states adopt.
BODY WIRE – This is a round or flat wire inserted or embedded as a helix in a hose wall to increase strength and/or to resist collapse.
BOLT HOLE CIRCLE – This is a circle on the face of a flange around which the bolt holes are centered and distributed
BORE - The internal diameter of a hose or pipe.
BOWL – The exterior shell of an expansion ring coupling.
BRAIDED HOSE – A hose manufactured with reinforcing material applied internally as an interlaced spiral, normally in interlaced, spiral strands.
BRAIDED PLY – Layer of braided reinforcement in a hose or tube.
BURST – A break or rupture in a hose or tube caused by internal pressure.
BURST PRESSURE – The pressure at which a burst or rupture occurs in a hose or tube.
BURST STRENGTH - The amount of internal pressure that a pipe or a fitting will hold before bursting/breaking.
CAPPED END – A hose end which is covered to protect the hose.
CEMENT (SOLVENT CEMENT) - An adhesive used to bond plastics that is a “solution” of a plastic resin and a volatile solvent.
CEMENTED END – A hose end which has been sealed by the application of cement or other liquid compound or coating.
CGA – Compressed Gas Association; An association dedicated to the development and promotion of safety standards and safe practices in the industrial gas industry.
CGSB – Canadian Government Specifications Board; A Canadian federal government organization that offers standards development and conformity assessment services in support of the economic, regulatory, procurement, health, safety and environmental interests of Canadian government, industry and consumers.
CHALKING – Disintegration and formation of a powdery (chalky) substance caused by weathering or other destructive materials or environments.
CHEMICAL RESISTANCE - The ability of a material to withstand the effects of chemicals applied at various concentrations and temperatures.
CHLORINATED POLY VINYL CHLORIDE – Also known as CPVC; it is essentially PVC that has been chlorinated via a chlorination reaction process. It is also a thermoplastic polymer and is generally non-toxic due to the nature of the manufacturing process. It is also resistant to many acids, bases, salts, paraffinic hydrocarbons, halogens and alcohols. It is not generally resistant to solvents, aromatics and some chlorinated hydrocarbons. It is one of the leading materials used in potable water systems for hoe and industry.
CLAMP – A metal fitting or band used around the exterior of a hose or tube end to attach or bind the hose end to a coupling, fitting or nipple.
CLEANER (PVC cleaner) – This is a cleaner ONLY and it is generally formulated to remove oil, grease, dirt and any other foreign materials that may exist on the surface of the product remaining from the manufacturing process. It does not prepare or soften the pipe in any way in preparation for gluing or assembly.
COLD FLEXIBILITY – The measured ease of bending observed following exposure to low temperatures.
COMPOUND – The mix of plastic polymers and/or copolymers combined to produce the desired properties used in the manufacture of a hose or tube.
CONDITIONING – Exposure of a hose or tube sample to certain external conditions, i.e. temperature for a specified period of time prior to testing.
CONCENTRICITY – The uniformity of a hoe or tube wall thickness as measured in a plane normal to the axis of the hose or tube.
COPOLYMER - A copolymer is a polymer derived from two (or more) monomeric compounds, as opposed to a homopolymer where only one monomer compound is used. Commercially relevant copolymers include ABS plastic, Nitrile rubber, styrene-acrylonitrile, styrene-isoprene-styrene (SIS) and ethylene-vinyl acetate.
CORRUGATED HOSE – A hose with a framework or structure that is fluted radially or helically to enhance flexibility and strength and/or reduce weight.
COUPLED LENGTH – Another term for fitting.
CPVC – This stands for Chlorinated Poly Vinyl Chloride; it is essentially PVC that has been chlorinated via a chlorination reaction process. It is also a thermoplastic polymer and is generally non-toxic due to the nature of the manufacturing process. It is also resistant to many acids, bases, salts, paraffinic hydrocarbons, halogens and alcohols. It is not generally resistant to solvents, aromatics and some chlorinated hydrocarbons. It is one of the leading materials used in potable water systems for hoe and industry.
CREEP - The amount of dimensional change, beyond the initial elastic elongation caused by the application of a load, over a specified period of time.
CRIMPING – The act of forming a hoe fitting to compress the hose or tubing within the fitting.
CUBICAL EXPANSION – The volume increase of a hose or tube when it is subjected to internal pressure.
CURE – The process of changing the properties of a material to a more stable, usable or final state by the use of chemical agents, heat or radiation.
CUT RESISTANCE – The ability of a hose or tube to withstand the cutting action of a sharp object.
DEGRADATION - A negative change in the chemical structure, physical properties or appearance of a plastic or material.
DELAMINATION – The process of layers of a laminated material separating either over time or under pressure.
DENSITY – The mass per unit of volume of a material.
DESIGN FACTOR – A ratio or ratios utilized in the design of a hose or tube based upon the working pressure or burst strength.
DETERIORATION - A permanent change in the physical properties of a material usually evidenced by impairment of performance, delamination or degradation.
DIELECTRIC STRENGTH – Ability of a product to resist passage or a disruptive discharge produced by an electric spike or stress.
DIMENSIONAL STABILITY - The ability of a material to maintain its original shape and dimensions under conditions of use or over time.
DRIFT – A measurable change in a given hardness or other value over a specified period of time.
DUROMETER – The instrument utilized for measuring the hardness of rubber or plastic compounds. This term is also used as abbreviation or slang to refer to durometer hardness.
DUROMETER HARDNESS – Numerical value which indicates resistance to indentation by the blunt end of a durometer. Generally speaking the higher the number, the less pliable and flexible a material is.
DWV – Abbreviation for drain, waste, vent; non-pressure pipe and fittings used inside the house or building that convey waste water from fixtures (sinks, showers, toilets, etc.) to the outside sanitary sewer or septic line.
ECCENTRICITY – For hose and tubing applications, this is the condition resulting from the inside and outside diameters of a hose or tube not having common centers, also referred to as eccentric wall or off-center.
ECCENTRIC WALL – A wall of a tube or hose with varying thickness.
ELASTIC LIMIT - The load point at which a material will not return to its original shape and size after a load or stress has been released.
ELASTICITY - The property of a material that allows it to return to its original dimensions after load, stress or other deformation.
ELASTOMER - A substance that when stretched to approximately twice its length, at room temperature, will quickly return to its original length when the stretching load is relieved.
ELONGATION – Increase in length of a material, normally shown as a percentage or fraction of the original or initial length.
EN - European norm or standard
END BLOCK – Reinforcing material added or applied to the end of a hose or tube to provide strength or rigidity. Also referred to as end reinforcement.
END REINFORCEMENT - Reinforcing material added or applied to the end of a hose or tube to provide strength or rigidity. Also referred to as end block.
ENDURANCE TEST - Laboratory test that is unusually conducted under normal use and stress conditions to determine normal use of the product.
ENVIRONMENTAL STRESS CRACKING - Cracks that develop when a plastic part is subjected to incompatible chemicals and put under stress.
EXTRUSION - A process used to create objects of a fixed cross-sectional profile. A material is pushed or drawn through a die of the desired cross-section. The two main advantages of this process over other manufacturing processes are its ability to create very complex cross-sections and work materials that are brittle, because the material only encounters compressive and shear stresses. It also forms finished parts with an excellent surface finish. Extrusion may be continuous (theoretically producing indefinitely long material) or semi-continuous (producing many pieces). The extrusion process can be done with the material hot or cold. Commonly extruded materials include metals, polymers, ceramics, concrete and foodstuffs.
FATIGUE – Weakening or deterioration of a material caused by repetitive or continuous stress or strain.
FDA – United States Food and Drug Administration.
FERRULE – A ferrule is a collar or tube placed over the end of a hose or tube and is used to fix a fitting to a hose. A ferrule may be crimped or swaged – forcing the hose inward against the shank of the fitting, or may be expanded – forcing the hose or tube outward against the ferrule; or both.
FITTING – This is a device attached to the end or both ends of a hose or tube that is used to make a connection.
FLANGE FITTING – A circular ring at the end of a hose or hose assembly used for joining to another circular rig fitting, normally through the use of bolts.
FLAT WIRE – A rectangular cross section wire that is commonly used as an inner element for hoses or tubing.
FLEX CRACK(ING) – Surface or other cracking in a hose or tube induced by repetitive bending and straightening.
FLOW RATE – A measure of the volume of fluid per unit of time (generally) passing a given point in a given direction.
FOREIGN MATERIAL – Wood, sand, dirt or other material that should not normally be present in a hose or tube or cover.
FORMING - A process in which the shape of plastic pieces such as sheets, rods or tubes are changed to a desired configuration.
FORMULATION - The combination of ingredients used to make a finished plastic product.
FREE LENGTH – Lineal measurement of a hose or tube between fittings or connections.
FROSTING - Disintegration and formation of a powdery (chalky) substance caused by weathering or other destructive materials or environments; also known as chalking.
FUNGICIDE – A material or solution that prevents or retards the growth of fungi.
FUSE – The process of joining plastic parts by softening the material with heat or solvents.
GUSSET - A piece used to give additional size or strength to a material or part at a particular location.
HARDNESS - The measure of a material’s ability to resist indentation.
HDPE – High Density Poly-Ethylene; is a polyethylene thermoplastic made from petroleum. HDPE is resistant to many different solvents and has a wide variety of applications, including telecom ducts, containers, chemical-resistant piping systems , geothermal heat transfer piping systems, natural distribution pipe systems , water distribution systems for domestic water supply, coax cable insulators (dielectric insulating spacer)and root barrier.
HEAT RESISTANCE - The ability of a material to withstand the effects of exposure to high temperatures.
HELICAL CORD – A reinforcement comprised of s cord or cords wound spirally around the body of a hose or tube.
HELIX – Shape formed by spiraling reinforcement around the cylindrical body of a hose or tube.
HOLD TEST – This is a hydrostatic pressure test during which a hose or tube is subjected to a particular internal pressure or force over a specified period of time.
HOOP STRESS - The circumferential stress imposed on a pipe wall when exposed to an internal pressure load. Usually expressed in PSI.
HOSE ASSEMBLY – A length of hose or tubing with a coupling or fastener attached tone one or both ends.
HOSE CLAMP – A collar, band or wire clamp used to hold or fix a hose to a fitting. Also known as clamp or ferrule.
HYSTERESIS – The loss of energy created by successive deformation and relaxation of a material.
IAPMO – International Association of Plumbing and Mechanical Officials; Regionally based (US West Coast) plumbers-union-based association that writes and administers the Uniform Plumbing Code. Some areas of the country, such as California, require that plumbing products have IAPMO certification in order to be used there.
ID – Internal dimension or diameter, also expressed as I.D.
IMPULSE – An application of force that is applied in such a way as to cause sudden strain or motion, such as hydraulic pressure in a hose.
INDENTATION – A recess or “dent” in the surface of a hose or tube, or the measure of the extent of a deformation by a hardness testing instrument.
INHIBITOR – A formula or ingredient used to suppress a chemical reaction or to suppress or stop the growth of something, i.e. mold or mildew
INJECTION MOLDING - a manufacturing process for producing parts from both thermoplastic and thermosetting plastic materials. Material is fed into a heated barrel, mixed, and forced into a mold cavity where it cools and hardens to the configuration of the mold cavity. After a product is designed, usually by an industrial designer or an engineer, molds are made by a mold maker (or toolmaker) from metal, usually either steel or aluminum, and precision-machined to form the features of the desired part. Injection molding is widely used for manufacturing a variety of parts, from the smallest component to entire body panels of cars.
INSERT – Another term for “nipple”
INTRINSIC VISCOSITY – Ratio of the difference of the viscosity of a solution at the given concentration and the viscosity of the pure solvent
IPS – Abbreviation for iron pipe size
IPT – Abbreviation for standard iron pipe thread
ISO – International Organization for Standardization; This association certifies a company’s ability to consistently manufacture quality products to their (ISO) standards, which are commonly termed ISO9000, ISO9001, etc.
JACKET – The seamless tubular braided or woven play generally on the outside of a hose.
JOINT - The point where a pipe and fitting or two pieces of pipe are connected together.
KINKING – Temporary or permanent distortion or a hose or tube caused by bending the tube or hose beyond the minimum bend radius.
LAP – A portion or part that extends over or beyond itself, usually by a specified amount.
LAP SEAM – Seam made by placing the edge of one piece of material flat over the edge of another piece of material.
LIFE TEST(ING) – Test utilized to determine the resistance of a hose or tube to specific forces or conditions generally accepted to be present during the life of the hose in use.
LIGHT STABILITY - A feature of a plastic that allows it to retain its original color and physical properties when exposed to sun or artificial light.
LINER – Separation used to prevent adjacent layers of material from sticking together.
LIVERING – Gelling or puddling in a glue or cement that gives the material a liver-like consistency.
LONGITUDINAL STRESS - A tensile or compressive force placed upon the long axis of a plastic part.
LOT - Specified quantity or quantities of a hose or tube production from which a sample is taken for inspection or reference.
LOW TEMPERATURE FLEXIBILITY – The ability of a hose or tube to be flexed or bowed at low temperatures with damage or loss of service.
LOW TEMPERATURE FLEXING – Act of bending or bowing a hose or tube under cold environmental conditions.
LPG – Abbreviation for liquefied petroleum gas
LUBRICANT - Any substance which reduces the friction between moving solid surfaces.
MANDREL – a form or mold used for size and to support a hose or tube during fabrication.
MASS FLOW RATE – Measurement of the mass of fluid per unit of time passing a given point or cross section in a given direction.
MILDEW INHIBITED – Inclusive of or containing a material or formulation to prevent or retard the growth or prorogation of fungus.
MILDEW RESISTANCE – Ability to withstand the action/deterioration of mildew.
MINIMUM BURST PRESSURE – Lowest pressure under which a break or rupture occurs under prescribed conditions in a hose or tube.
MIX - The mix of plastic polymers and/or copolymers combined to produce the desired properties used in the manufacture of a hose or tube.
MONOMER - A low-molecular-weight substance whose molecules can react with other molecules to form a polymer.
MSHA – Mine Safety and Health Administration
NECKING DOWN – Localized decrease in the cross-sectional area of a hose resulting from stress and/or tension.
NIPPLE – Internal member or portion of a hose fitting.
NOMINAL – A dimensional value which is assigned to a hose or tube size or dimension for convenient designation.
NON-TOXIC - Non-poisonous.
NSF – National Sanitation Foundation; This is a nationally recognized testing laboratory that certifies plumbing products to meet the standard to which they were created.
NUCA – National Utility Contractors Association; NUCA is the largest trade association working solely for the underground utility construction industry. NUCA represents contractors, suppliers, and manufacturers involved in water, sewer, gas, electric, telecommunications, site work, and other segments of the industry across the country.
NYLON PLASTICS - Plastics based on resins composed principally of a long-chain synthetic polymeric amide that has recurring amide groups as an integral part of the main polymer chain.
OD – External or outside dimension or diameter, also expressed as O.D.
OFF-CENTER – For hose and tubing applications, this is the condition resulting from the inside and outside diameters of a hose or tube not having common centers, also referred to as eccentric wall or eccentricity.
OFF GAUGE – Material which does not conform to specified diameters or thickness.
OIL PROOF – Unaffected by exposure to oil.
OLEFIN PLASTICS - A group of plastics based on polymers made by the polymerization or copolymerization of olefins with other monomers, with the olefins being at least 50% of the weight. Polypropylene, polyethylene and polybutylene are examples.
OPERATING PRESSURE – Maximum pressure to which a hose or tube can be subjected before loss of performance or damage occurs, including momentary surges or spikes in pressure. Also known as working pressure.
OS&D – Abbreviation for oil suction and discharge hose
OSHA – Abbreviation for Occupational Safety and Health Administration
OZONE CRACKING OR AGING – Surface cracks and fatigue caused by exposure to an atmosphere of ozone.
OZONE RESISTANCE – The ability of a hose or tube to withstand the deteriorating effects of ozone.
PE/PEX – This stands for PolyEthelene. PE is generally used as supply pipe in commercial and residential irrigation systems and drip irrigation systems. PEX is simply a cross-linked polyethylene. Through one of several processes, links between the polyethylene molecules are formed to create bridges (thus the term "cross-linked). The resulting material is more durable under temperature extremes, making PEX an excellent material for hot water and other applications. (PEX) is increasingly being used to replace copper and traditional plastic piping for transporting both hot and cold water.
PERMANENT FITTING – A type of fitting which once installed cannot be remove and/or reused.
PERMANENT SET – The amount by which an elastic material fails to return to its original state and form after deformation.
PHENOLIC PLASTICS - A group of plastics based on resins made by the condensation of phenols with aldehydes.
PITCH – Distance from one point on a helix to the corresponding point on the next turn of the helix, measured parallel to the axis. Also known in some circles as spacing.
PITTED TUBE – Surface depressions or deformations on the inside or inner tube of a hose.
PLAIN ENDS – The uncapped, unprotected straight ends of a hose or tube.
PLASTICITY - The property of plastics that allows them to be formed, without rupture, continuously and permanently by the application of a force that exceeds the yield value of the material.
PLASTICIZER - A substance incorporated in a plastic to increase its workability or flexibility.
PLY - One of several layers (as of cloth) usually sewn or laminated together to form a material
PLY ADHESION – Force required to separate two adjoining reinforcing members of a hose.
PLY SEPARATION – Loss of adhesion between plies.
POCK MARKS – Uneven elevations, depressions or pimpled appearance.
POLYETHELENE – Also known as PE/PEX is generally used as supply pipe in commercial and residential irrigation systems and drip irrigation systems. PEX is simply a cross-linked polyethylene. Through one of several processes, links between the polyethylene molecules are formed to create bridges (thus the term "cross-linked). The resulting material is more durable under temperature extremes, making PEX an excellent material for hot water and other applications. (PEX) is increasingly being used to replace copper and traditional plastic piping for transporting both hot and cold water.
POLYPROPYLENE – also known as PP, stands for PolyPropylene; it is generally used for potable waters, food handling, compressed air lines and for some uses in the pharmaceutical and chemical industries. It is generally resistant to chemical damage, but is not generally resistant to UV radiation and should be protected when being used outdoors or in moderate to heavy sunlight applications.
POLYMER - A product formed by the chemical reaction of the addition of a large number of small molecules that have the ability to combine and reach high molecular weights.
POLYPROPYLENE PLASTICS - Plastics based on polymers made with propylene as essentially the sole monomer.
POLYSTYRENE - A polymer prepared by the polymerization of styrene as the sole monomer.
POLYVINYL CHLORIDE PLASTICS - This stands for Polymerized Vinyl Chloride (unchlorinated); it is a thermoplastic polymer and is generally not approved for potable water. It is biologically and chemically resistant (to most compounds) and is the leading material used in landscape and garden irrigation supply lines, ponds, pools and water gardens.
POROUS TUBE – The physical condition of a hose tube due to the presence of pores, or a hose tube that has low resistance to permeation.
PP – This stands for PolyPropylene; it is generally used for potable waters, food handling, compressed air lines and for some uses in the pharmaceutical and chemical industries. It is generally resistant to chemical damage, but is not generally resistant to UV radiation and should be protected when being used outdoors or in moderate to heavy sunlight applications.
PRESSURE BURST – The pressure at which a hoe or tube fails or ruptures.
PRESSURE RATING - The maximum pressure at which a material or part can safely function without failing.
PRIMER/CLEANER (PVC primer/cleaner) – This is a “hybrid” or combination product which contains both cleaner and a softening primer that helps to prepare/soften the pipe surface to allow the solvent cement to penetrate more effectively.
PRIMER (PVC primer) – This product contains more aggressive solvents that are intended only to soften the pipe surface to allow the solvent cement to penetrate more effectively. The pipe should be cleaned properly before using a primer only. Local codes often require the use of a primer when working with PVC pipe, and sometimes a certain type (i.e. purple primer) is required. If you have questions, check with your local code authorities.
PROOF PRESSURE – A specified pressure which exceeds the manufacturers working pressure of a hose or tube which is used to indicate its reliability at normal working pressure. Usually twice the working pressure.
PSI – Abbreviation for pounds per square inch
PVC – This stands for Polymerized Vinyl Chloride (unchlorinated); it is a thermoplastic polymer and is generally not approved for potable water. It is biologically and chemically resistant (to most compounds) and is the leading material used in landscape and garden irrigation supply lines, ponds, pools and water gardens.
PVC CLEANER – This is a cleaner ONLY and it is generally formulated to remove oil, grease, dirt and any other foreign materials that may exist on the surface of the product remaining from the manufacturing process. It does not prepare or soften the pipe in any way in preparation for gluing or assembly.
PVC PRIMER/CLEANER – This is a “hybrid” or combination product which contains both cleaner and a softening primer that helps to prepare/soften the pipe surface to allow the solvent cement to penetrate more effectively.
PVC PRIMER – This product contains more aggressive solvents that are intended only to soften the pipe surface to allow the solvent cement to penetrate more effectively. The pipe should be cleaned properly before using a primer only. Local codes often require the use of a primer when working with PVC pipe, and sometimes a certain type (i.e. purple primer) is required. If you have questions, check with your local code authorities.
QUALIFICATION TEST – The examination of samples or a sample from a production run of hose or tubing used to determine adherence to given specifications.
RECOVERY – Degree to which a hose or tube returns to normal dimensions or shape after being bent or distorted.
REINFORCED PLASTIC - A plastic with high strength fillers imbedded in the composition, causing some mechanical properties to be superior to those of the base resin.
RESIN - A solid material, often having a high molecular weight, that exhibits a tendency to flow when subjected to stress, and usually has a softening or melting range. Used to make plastics and plastic molded products.
ROUGH BORE HOSE – A wire reinforced hose in which a wire is exposed in the bore.
RUNNER - The secondary feed channel in an injection mold that runs from the inner end of the sprue to the cavity gate. Also, the solidified piece of plastic that forms in the feed channel when the injection molded part cools.
SAE – Abbreviation for Society of Engineers
SCHEDULE - A pipe sizing system for the outside diameter and wall thickness dimensions that was started by the iron pipe industry. Normally, as the diameter increases, the pressure rating decreases for any given schedule of pipe.
SERVICE TEST – Test in which a product is used under actual service conditions.
SET – Amount of strain remaining after the complete release of a load producing a deformation.
SHANK – The portion of a fitting which is inserted into the bore of a hose.
SHELF (STORAGE) LIFE – Period of time prior to use during which a product retains its intended performance capability.
SHELL – Ferrule
SHOCK LOAD – A stress caused by a sudden force.
SIMULATED SERVICE TEST - A test in which the conditions that a material will encounter in service are approximate in the laboratory.
SINK – A collapsed blister or bubble leaving a depression in a hose or tube product.
SMOOTH BORE HOSE – A wire-reinforced hose where the wire is not exposed on the inner surface of the tube.
SOCKET – The external member or portion of a hose fitting.
SOFT END – A hose end in which the rigid reinforcement of the body (usually wire reinforcement) is omitted.
SOFTENING POINT - The temperature at which a plastic changes from rigid to soft.
SOLVENT CEMENT - An adhesive used to bond plastics that is a mixture of a plastic resin and a volatile solvent.
SPACING – The space between adjacent turns of helically wound wire (differs from pitch in that the diameter or the width of the wire is not included in the calculation).
SPRUE - The primary feed channel that runs from the outer face of an injection mold to the runner or the gate.
STABILIZER - An ingredient added to a plastic compound to inhibit or retard undesirable changes in the material.
STIFFNESS FACTOR - A term describing the degree of flexibility in a piece of pipe when subjected to an external load.
TENSILE STRENGTH - The measure of a material’s ability to resist a stretching force.
THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY - A measure of a plastic’s ability to conduct heat.
UL – Underwriter’s Laboratories; UL is a nationally recognized testing laboratory that certifies consumer products for standard compliance and safety.
ULC – Underwriter’s Laboratories Canada; Canadian branch of Underwriter’s Laboratories.
VISCOSITY - A term describing a material’s resistance to flow.
WELD LINE (Knit Line) - A term used to describe a mark on a molded plastic part formed by the union of two or more streams of plastic flowing together.